Scientia Militaria - South African Journal of Military Studies 2020-01-23T14:26:21+00:00 Thomas Mandrup Open Journal Systems <p>The journal is published bi-annually by the Faculty of Military Science of Stellenbosch University, South Africa. It is an accredited, peer reviewed scholarly journal, which investigates a broad spectrum of matters and issues relating to military affairs, and publishes both discipline-based and inter-disciplinary research.</p> Editorial 2020-01-23T11:52:36+00:00 Thomas Mandrup Mandrup 2020-01-23T11:52:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Thomas Mandrup Mandrup MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS 2020-01-23T11:52:36+00:00 Dirk Kruijt During the last two centuries, the military in Latin America has been involved in politics in a characteristic duality of professionalism and political ‘calling’, by political armies of the right and the left. In both cases, a kind of ‘military mystique’ prevails, but its content is different. In both cases, the military justifies its involvement as a consequence of its necessary correcting and transforming vanguard role in politics and society. The two characteristics of dual functions (internal and internal security) and dual pathways (professionalism and political missions) are a revolving theme in this article. 2020-01-23T11:52:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dirk Kruijt SMALL WARS AND PEOPLE’S WARS: A CLAUSEWITZIAN PERPECTIVE ON THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR, 1899–1902 2020-01-23T11:52:36+00:00 Pieter Labuschagne The theorist and strategist Carl von Clausewitz developed core theoretical concepts on war, including that war is merely an extension of politics by different means, and that the integration of morality and rationality functions as a driving force in a people’s war. Clausewitz envisaged the idea of war in its absolute perfection (‘beautiful wars’) as a regulative ideal, which formed part of his framework on small wars and people’s wars. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how Clausewitz’s theories on small wars, and their transformation into people’s wars, are still valuable when analysing and contextualising historical events and battles. The value of Clausewitz’s theories on small wars and people’s wars is demonstrated by applying them to the general characteristics of the South African War of 1899–1902. The way Clausewitz differentiates between the underpinning reasons for war, and between ‘limited’ and ‘absolute’ war, is specifically relevant for understanding the different tactics which commanders adopted in the field of battle. The theoretical distinction that Clausewitz makes between the objectives of two opposing forces could clarify why the British Empire and the two Boer Republics went to war. The same distinction might explain the motives and the impetus that gave rise to divergent views, and how the subsequent conflict developed into a full-scale war. 2020-01-23T11:52:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pieter Labuschagne Evaluating the final military phase of the Border War in south-eastern Angola 1987 -1988 2020-01-23T11:52:36+00:00 Janet Szabo The assessment of the final military phase of South Africa’s border war in southern Angola from 1987 to 1988 in terms of victory or defeat is not without controversy. The mobile engagements on the Lomba between the South Africans (in support of UNITA) and the Angolan armed forces (FAPLA), saw a clear victory for the SADF when assessed in terms of achievement of objectives, equipment captured and destroyed as well as enemy casualties. South Africa’s offensive manoeuvres on the Chambinga River - particularly regarding the Angolan 16th Brigade as more recent information indicates - were also successful in inflicting significant losses of men and equipment and damaging morale. However, once the SADF switched from mobile warfare – which allowed it to effectively engage the Angolans who had superior numbers – to positional warfare against larger numbers of Angolan and Cuban forces in well-prepared and defended positions at Tumpo opposite Cuito Cuanavale, the picture changed. Tumpo can thus be regarded as a stalemate. South Africa had achieved its objective of preventing UNITA’s annihilation and inflicted sufficient losses on FAPLA. But it had not managed to completely dislodge the Angolan and Cuban forces from the east bank of the Cuito River. 2020-01-23T11:52:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Janet Szabo NON-COERCIVE DEFENCE DIPLOMACY FOR CONFLICT PREVENTION 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Robin M. Blake Yolanda K. Spies Since the end of the Cold War, the practice of defence diplomacy has received much attention, as has the proactive prevention of conflict. However, the preventive diplomacy of defence forces – something that is implied in the literature – has been less well articulated. This article addresses the theoretical lacuna by means of a pivotal qualification: the conceptual demarcation is narrowed down to non-coercive defence diplomacy (NCDD). NCDD is based on the principles of transparency, reputation and integrity and, per definition, it eschews violence or the threat thereof. It is therefore an exclusive subset of the wide range of international defence cooperation (generically referred to as ‘defence diplomacy’) in which defence forces engage. When NCDD activities are synchronised with the early stages of conflict development, the escalation of conflict is avoided. This is because NCDD requires of defence forces to conduct their cooperative international relations in a manner that promotes confidence and trust: essential elements of security that are integral to sustainable peace. Within the realm of diplomatic statecraft, the potential agency of defence forces in the prevention of conflict therefore warrants more strategic attention. It is especially required in Africa, where stable peace remains elusive and post-colonial military influence in intra- and inter-state politics has been mostly problematic. 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Robin M. Blake, Yolanda K. Spies MILITARY AND SECURITY EDUCATION FOR REGIONAL CO-OPERATION : A CASE STUDY OF THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEFENCE AND SECURITY MANAGEMENT NETWORK 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Gavin Cawthra This article first summarises approaches to military and security education at tertiary levels for officers and senior security officials, identifying some institutional and conceptual issues, before moving on to a fairly detailed case study of the Southern African Defence and Security Management Network (SADSEM). In its institutional form, from 2000 to 2010, SADSEM was a unique experiment in building a regional network of universities providing training and education in security studies, promoting regional security co-operation and integration and working closely with security forces and governments in the Southern African region. Although it mostly worked in English, it also carried out education and research in French and Portuguese, established an institutional base in ten Southern African Development Community (SADC) nations and delivered programmes in all the then 15 of them. Its activities included providing training and education for defence and security management, civil-military relations, peacekeeping and peacebuilding, policy support and the building of scholarly capacity though regional co-operation. Today SADSEM activities are restricted mainly to an annual security review conference, but its real legacy is in the institutions and capacities it built within several Southern African countries, although not all survive. SADSEM kept a low profile because of extreme sensitivities in Southern Africa around security issues, and this is the first attempt to examine its experience in the context of higher-level security education and training. 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gavin Cawthra PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: LIVED EXPERIENCES OF EMERGENCY CARE PROVIDERS DURING EXTERNAL DEPLOYMENT 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Tshikani Lewis Khoza Nombeko Mshunqane Simpiwe Sobuwa Military emergency medical care in support of mission personnel in operational areas serves as a vital element of peace support operations, as it ensures the maintenance of the human resources deployed in mission areas. Although the South African National Defence Force is facing significant financial constraints, it is becoming increasingly mobile, as South Africa continues to pledge military and diplomatic assistance in the African continent to maintain peace and stability, promote development and provide security. Consequently, when deployed abroad, military emergency care providers face unique challenges. The aim of this paper is to describe the lived experiences of Gauteng-based emergency care providers in delivering emergency medical care amid resource constraints during external deployment. The descriptions were extracted from a larger study titled “exploring lived experiences of Gauteng-based military pre-hospital emergency care providers during external deployment”. The research was conducted using a qualitative, exploratory research design and was guided by a phenomenological approach. The findings indicate that Gauteng-based military emergency care providers often did not have enough equipment or appropriate transportation to perform their duties during external deployment. As a result, they are hindered from providing quality care to ill and injured patients. 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Tshikani Lewis Khoza, Nombeko Mshunqane, Simpiwe Sobuwa FACTORS INFLUENCING WORK SATISFACTION OF SINGLE PARENTS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCE: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Kgomotso T Matjeke Gideon AJ van Dyk There has been a documented increase in single-parent families over the years. Various causes, such as divorce, death, irresponsible fathers and choice, to mention but a few, contribute to this increase. Since 2005, the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) has been partaking in various peacekeeping missions on the continent. The deployment of the SANDF is, however, not limited to cross-border activities. The SANDF also deploys its soldiers within the country in border control operations. While some soldiers are deployed within and outside the borders of the country, others remain in the home bases to continue with daily tasks. These soldiers usually work from 08:00–16:00, Monday to Friday. There are instances, however, where they need to work beyond the normal working hours and over weekends to participate in training exercises or even as a result of being deployed. Because of their single-parent status, these soldiers face inherent military challenges as well as role-related ones, which may influence their work satisfaction. The research reported here aimed to investigate the relationships between stress, work–family conflict, social support and work–family enrichment (WFE) in terms of work satisfaction of single parents in the SANDF. 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kgomotso T Matjeke, Gideon AJ van Dyk MOZAMBICAN CIVIL WAR: MARXIST-APARTHEID PROXY, 1977-1992 (Cold War 1945-1991) - Stephen Emerson 2020-01-23T14:26:21+00:00 Hussein Solomon When discussing the Cold War, the Berlin Blockade or the Cuban Missile Crisis frequently comes to the fore. What is often under-researched is how this ideological struggle for influence between Moscow and Washington was repeatedly played out across the African continent. Whilst superpower rivalry drove the United States and the Soviet Union to secure new allies and strategic access to mineral resources in Africa through economic and diplomatic means, it had a dark underbelly. The darker dimension of superpower rivalry in Africaas reflected in the use of military measures: awarding allied African governments with military aid packages, covert military assistance and training whilst undermining those African governments hostile to the donor’s interests through support for rebel forces in those countries. Whilst these superpower proxies advanced the interests of their benefactors, they often exacerbated existing societal and political cleavages in the country contributing to the chronic instability with which post-independence African states had to contend. In the case of Mozambique, shortly after replacing the former Portuguese colonial authorities, the Machel government made several mistakes in attempting to create a more inclusive economy, a government that served all its citizens, and the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) movement enamoured with the socialist ideology. In the process, it alienated large segments of Mozambicans – including traditional leaders and the Catholic Church. In this volatile environment, the Mozambican Resistance Movement (RENAMO) emerged. 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Stephen Emerson COLD WAR 1945 – 1991 BIAFRA GENOCIDE, NIGERIA: BLOODLETTING AND MASS STARVATION, 1967 – 1970 - Al J Venter 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Nnaemeka Uwakwe Itiri The book begins with an introduction in which the author recounts the colonial history. He maintains that the average Nigerian does not like to be reminded of the fact that, until 1960, Nigeria was ruled from London. The author acknowledges the progress made by Nigeria in infrastructure –schools, clinics, hospitals, administrative centres, rail links - which made him compare Nigeria (as the “African pearl”) with India, which he describes as the “jewel in the British Crown”. The author identifies the bloody counter-coup of July 1966 as a major event which led to the Biafran War<br />following hostilities that led to the death of people of Southern Nigerian origin, the majority of whom were from the Igbo tribe. In the process, the Nigerian Civil War started and marked “one of the first times Western countries were awakened and deeply affronted by the level of the suffering and the scale of the atrocities played out in this corner of the African continent” (p. 11). Perhaps, this justifies Venter’s choice of the title of the book. In his opinion, the efforts made by “friends of Biafra” to send relief materials to the “beleaguered state” did not meet the aims as most of<br />the relief aircraft were used for ‘arms smuggling’. Hence, “most of the people who died in the war either starved to death or were debilitated that their frail bodies were unable to counter infection or disease” (p. 15). This lends credence to the position of RN Ogbudinkpa, in The economics of the Nigerian Civil War and its prospects for national development (Enugu: Fourth Dimension Press, 1985), where he insists that many people died in the war as a result of starvation and not military activities. However, despite the difficulties associated with wartime environments, Venter, like<br />most journalists who covered the war, was in Biafra until the end of the war. 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Al J Venter OMEGA, OOR EN UIT: DIE STORIE VAN ’N OPSTANDIGE TROEP - François Verster 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Evert Kleynhans War narratives are in essence categorised as a distinct literary kind of its own. In his masterpiece The soldier’s tale: Bearing witness to modern war, Samuel Hynes argues that mankind is generally curious about war. Hynes contends that it is often easier to respond to one man and his ‘war’, than to try to comprehend the overwhelming statistics associated with modern wars – especially in terms of the overwhelming numbers of soldiers, battles and casualties. For Hynes, it was important to “understand what war was like, and how it feels, we must … seek the reality in the personal witness of the men who were there”. As such, the recording of the personal narratives of soldiers are extremely important. These narratives, however, can be subdivided into two broad categories depending on differing needs – the need to report and the need to remember. Accounts that fall into the reporting category generally comprise letters, diaries and journals that are kept as the war unfolds. The value of these sources is varied, but in essence, they offer immediacy and directness in recording the personal experience of war. The second category comprises memoirs. Memoirs are indeed much more reflective in nature, in that they are written years after<br />the actual experience of war. Moreover, memoirs give a selective overview of “what the young self did, what happened to him, what changed him”. 2020-01-23T11:52:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evert Kleynhans