Scientia Militaria - South African Journal of Military Studies 2021-12-01T13:01:35+00:00 Evert Kleynhans Open Journal Systems <p>The journal is published bi-annually by the Faculty of Military Science of Stellenbosch University, South Africa. It is an accredited, peer reviewed scholarly journal, which investigates a broad spectrum of matters and issues relating to military affairs, and publishes both discipline-based and inter-disciplinary research.</p> Editorial 2021-12-01T13:00:28+00:00 Evert Kleynhans <p>FYI</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evert Kleynhans The legalisation of cannabis: A security-vetting dilemma 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Piet Bester Sonja Els <p>During 1996, the South African Intelligence Community issued the Minimum<br>Information Security Standards (MISS), which inter alia address the protection of<br>classified information. The MISS provide the principles, standards and procedures to<br>be followed by all South African government agencies for the protection of official<br>resources.3 This includes the granting of different types and levels of security clearances<br>by the South African government to provide employees and contractors access to<br>classified information. The decision to grant a person access to classified information<br>is based on such individual’s security competence. This is an indication of the person’s<br>ability – based on his or her conduct – to prevent classified material from being disclosed<br>to unauthorised persons, which may potentially prejudice or endanger the security or<br>interests of the employing institution or the state. An applicant for a security clearance<br>may be a prospective employee applying for a post from outside the organisation or<br>an insider who is already in the organisation, often referred to as outsider and insider<br>threats.4 The process of determining a person’s security competence is referred to as<br>security vetting for new employees, and re-vetting for existing employees who have<br>gone through the vetting process in the past.5 In this article, the use of the term ‘vetting’<br>includes re-vetting.</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Piet Bester, Sonja Els The role of Russian volunteers in the collapse of the international legion in the South African War 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Boris Gorelik <p>The establishment of an international legion by General Georges de Villebois-Mareuil<br>in March 1900 was the most ambitious attempt to coordinate the activities of foreign<br>volunteer units within a single formation during the South African War. On the general’s<br>death (5 April 1900), De Villebois’s Russian deputy and successor, Lieutenant Colonel<br>Yevgeny Maximov, lost control of the legion. As a hierarchical formation, it survived<br>De Villebois by only two weeks. Given Maximov’s ample experience in conventional<br>and unconventional warfare, and the accolades that he later won from the republican<br>political and military leadership, including the rank of general, the legionnaires’<br>opposition to him appears to be unjustified. Accounting for the discrepancy between<br>historians’ perceptions of Maximov and his lack of success in controlling the legion<br>is based on a premise that legionnaires had compelling reasons to reject his authority.<br>Maximov had come to Africa ostensibly as a journalist. He was yet to earn the respect of<br>his subordinates because he had not seen action in the South African War. In subsequent<br>weeks, having resigned from his post in the legion, he distinguished himself in the<br>engagement at Tobaberg as the leader of the Dutch corps. By then, Maximov had the<br>‘moral authority’ to command an international unit, but his poor health prevented him<br>from carrying on fighting. Unlike De Villebois, who was supported by like-minded<br>French lieutenants, Maximov could not rely on his compatriots. Instead of endorsing his<br>claim to leadership, the Russian corps refused to join the legion while he was in charge,<br>and intentionally discredited him. In the power vacuum after De Villebois’s death, the<br>legion collapsed, and a chance to transform the emerging alliance of foreign volunteer<br>units into a formidable force was missed.</p> 2021-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Boris Gorelik Loss of military equipment by the SADF at the Battle at Indungo during the Border War, 31 October 1987 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Marius Scheepers Fransjohan Pretorius <p>This article takes the form of an investigation regarding the loss of military equipment<br>by the South African Defence Force (SADF) at the Battle at Indungo, in an operation<br>that was assigned the codename Operation Firewood, on 31 October 1987 during the<br>Angolan Border War. The war was waged from 1966 to 1989 in Southern Africa. The<br>case study of Operation Firewood illustrates some of the circumstances under which the<br>SADF lost military equipment in Angola during the war.<br>Operation Firewood was one of more than 300 SADF general operations201 that occurred<br>in Angola. In the final stages of the war, the area north of Cuvelai provided the setting<br>for the launching of Operation Firewood, some 285 kilometres north of the border with<br>South West Africa/Namibia. The aim of this military operation was to eliminate an<br>enemy base that housed elements of the People’s Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN),<br>the military wing of the South West Africa People’s Organisation (SWAPO).</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Marius Scheepers Professional military instructor identity in the South African National Defence Force 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 William John Wagner Sonja van Putten Willem Rauscher <p>In 2015, the chief of human resources at the South African National Defence Force<br>(SANDF) ordered the improvement of the instructional quality and military ethos of<br>military instructors. This article, based on a comprehensive study in this regard, reports<br>on the perceptions of a sample of military instructors in the SANDF on the existence<br>of a construct, known as the professional military instructor identity and its effect on<br>military ethos and instructional quality. A qualitative approach was followed, using an<br>interpretivist/constructivist paradigm, involving data collection by means of a focus<br>group discussion and expert interviews and using thematic networks analysis as data<br>analysis method. A conceptual framework for the professional military instructor<br>identity, consisting of sub-identities, influencing factors and identifying indicators, was<br>constructed. Findings suggest that the professional military instructor identity is not<br>recognised as a construct in the SANDF; however, the elements are known, although<br>only vaguely. The findings also support the view that this situation may have affected<br>the current declining military ethos and instructional quality of military instructors. It<br>is concluded that the institutionalisation and popularisation of the professional military<br>instructor identity, as well as professional recognition of military instructors in the<br>SANDF, could improve the current situation.</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 William John Wagner Food wastage management at the South African Military Academy officer’s mess 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Nomboniso Moss Ivan Henrico Hennie Smit <p>Globally, an estimated one-third of the total of food produced for human consumption<br>is never consumed. This affects food security. South Africa has obligations to meet<br>international commitments to reduce food wastage. The United Nations Sustainable<br>Development Goal (SDG) 12.3 aims to reduce food loss through wastage by 30 per cent<br>by 2030. To contribute to the achievement of this goal, South Africa has to formulate<br>policies to reduce food loss to achieve national food security. The South African<br>National Defence Force (SANDF), as an organ of the state, should align with national<br>policies aimed at reducing food loss and waste. The current study was conducted at the<br>South African Military Academy (SAMA), an institution of higher learning for SANDF<br>members. The institution has a catering facility that serves approximately 350 resident<br>students and other living-in members375 daily. To date, no research has been done on<br>food wastage management either in the broader SANDF or at this institution. This<br>lack of information and analysis on food wastage management in the military in South<br>Africa prompted the current research. The study analysed food wastage management at<br>the SAMA mess to identify the level of knowledge and skills of SAMA officers’ mess<br>personnel regarding the status of food wastage and best management practices. Through<br>this qualitative study, online semi-structured interviews, using Microsoft Teams, were<br>utilised to collect data from SAMA mess personnel. The findings revealed that there are<br>set measures in place at the SAMA mess for managing food wastage, such as booking<br>meals in advance and being able to repurpose food. The participants also indicated that<br>most SAMA chefs are trained in food wastage management and possess the necessary<br>skills to reduce food wastage in the mess; yet, not optimally so. Recommendations from<br>this research are that more and improved training of personnel, as well as awareness<br>programmes among mess staff and SAMA students would further reduce food wastage.<br>Implementing such food wastage management measures would benefit the SAMA<br>and the SANDF, and would contribute to national food wastage management and the<br>realisation of the United Nations SDG 12.3.</p> 2021-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nomboniso Moss, Ivan Henrico, Hennie Smit Artificial intelligence and big data in the Maritime Silk Road Initiative: The road towards Sea Power 2.0 2021-12-01T13:01:35+00:00 Lungani Nelson Hlongwa <p>China’s Belt and Road Initiative continues to attract considerable attention from scholars<br>and observers in diverse fields. However, students of the Belt and Road Initiative (‘the<br>Initiative’) have focused extensively on the land and sea dimensions of this grand project<br>while only tentatively touching on its other dimensions. This article draws attention to<br>the digital and maritime dimensions of the Initiative, which are respectively known as<br>the Digital Silk Road Initiative and the Maritime Silk Road Initiative. Specifically, the<br>article focuses on how artificial intelligence and big data, as promoted under the Digital<br>Silk Road Initiative, intersect with the Maritime Silk Road Initiative to produce what the<br>author refers to as Sea power 2.0. To contextualise this intersection, the article draws<br>on patent data to show how artificial intelligence and big data are adopted in supply<br>chains. The results from the patent analysis show that artificial intelligence and big<br>data will play a crucial role in future supply chains, and hence, the Maritime Silk Road<br>Initiative. Although the article focuses mostly on the commercial side of Sea power 2.0,<br>it concludes by pointing out how artificial intelligence and big data could serve military<br>objectives.</p> 2021-10-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lungani Nelson Hlongwa In the Kill Zone: Surviving as a private military contractor in Iraq 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Jean-Pierre Scherman <p>FYI</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jean Pierre Scherman Eerste Daar 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Will Gordon <p>In the introduction to his book, Van der Waals claims that the book is largely based on<br>a manuscript that he wrote for his children about 15 years ago, and he acknowledges<br>that it is not an academic work.564 With this disclaimer of sorts, Van der Waals firmly<br>places his book in the memoire segment of recent South African military historiography.<br>While this is true – the book certainly reads like a memoire – Van der Waals manages<br>to incorporate much more than just personal reflections and recollections in his work.<br>Perhaps due to his academic background, his narrative is lifted above the proliferation<br>of recent memoires by South African Defence Force (SADF) soldiers by occasional<br>analyses and opinions interspersed throughout the book.</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Will Gordon Kansvatter: Die rustelose lewe van Ben Viljoen 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Emile Coetzee <p>To write a biography is a daunting task but if done correctly and fairly, it can be a<br>magnificent piece of historical literature. A biography, and especially an autobiography,<br>is a literary genre that can assist any historian to see past events directly through the eyes<br>of the person about whose life is being written. Some historical figures can boast a long<br>list of biographies due to their popularity during their lifetime or shortly after it. Others<br>are either merely mentioned briefly in other publications or their biographies are limited<br>due to a variety of external factors. When it comes to Benjamin Johannis (or is it Barend<br>Johannes?) Viljoen, his life story is finally explained thoroughly for the first time by the<br>Stellenbosch historian, Dr Carel van der Merwe.</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Emile Coetzee Physical control, transformation and damage in the First World War: War bodies 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Anri Delport <p>Nearly a century after the conclusion of the First World War of 1914–1918, the British<br>military historian Ian FW Beckett expressively stated, “[h]istorians walk with ghosts.”577<br>As an explanation, he descriptively noted, “[t]hey are privileged … to see what others do<br>not as they tread the deserted banquet-hall of the past, endeavouring to repopulate it with<br>those who have gone before and who might otherwise be forgotten.</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Anri Delport Enemies in the Empire: Civilian internment in the British Empire during the First World War 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Ian Van der Waag <p>FYI</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ian Van der Waag On contested shores: The evolving role of amphibious operations in the history of warfare 2021-11-30T12:20:05+00:00 Evert Kleynhans <p>FYI</p> 2021-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evert Kleynhans