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Author Guidelines


Scientia Militaria is published bi-annually by the Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), Stellenbosch University. It is a DHET accredited, scholarly journal, which investigates a broad spectrum of matters and issues relating to military affairs, and publishes both discipline-based and inter-disciplinary research. In order to ensure that articles are of a high quality, all submissions are refereed (peer-reviewed) by at least two experts in the field. Refereeing is done with complete anonymity and confidentiality. Articles published in Scientia Militaria qualify for a subsidy from the South African Department of Higher Education and Training.
- To speed up the review process, it is recommended that authors submit an electronic copy to the editors. It is also possible to submit manuscripts in printed form.
- The length of papers should be between 5 000 and 7 000 words, including footnotes, schedules and reference lists.
- A written guarantee that the manuscript has not been submitted to other publications is required.
- All papers must be language-edited by a language practitioner.
- Please see the General Guidelines for Contributors (scroll down) for the preferred reference technique. Research containing no references will not be considered.
- Where maps, figures and graphs are presented, they must be professionally produced and ready for photographic reproduction.
- The final decision concerning the publication of papers lies with a subcommittee of the editorial committee. No correspondence will be carried on in this respect.
- Copyright on all published material in Scientia Militaria rests with the Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), Stellenbosch University.
- Authors submitting papers, which originally formed part of dissertations or theses, should consult with their study leaders/promoters prior to submission.
- Opinions expressed in the Journal, or conclusions made, are those of the author(s) alone and do not imply endorsement on the part of the editors.
- The assessment of papers could take a considerable length of time, and authors are requested not to make enquiries before a period of at least four months has elapsed.


It is difficult to be prescriptive about the use of a certain style of reference in a multidisciplinary journal such as Scientia Militaria. This specifically concerns the referencing of certain primary researched historical and science articles. The Editorial Committee will make certain exceptions in the case of these kinds of articles. However, as a general guideline, for the purpose of uniformity and to simplify the editorial process, the use of endnotes (not footnotes) is required for all articles considered for publication in Scientia Militaria.


Place the endnote indicator after the argument, not after the name(s) of the author(s). For example, Hermann Giliomee and Bernard Mbengu argue that the SADF conducted “… one of the most successful counter-insurgency campaigns in history” in Namibia.1 Please note that the indicator always comes after the punctuation. The endnote containing the first reference to a specific source should be detailed. The short-title method is used for subsequent references to the same source. Ibid. is used to refer to the last cited source. The page is added when the citation refers to a different page in the same source i.e. Ibid. p. 10. Use op. cit. to refer to an earlier citation, i.e. Giliomee and Mbengu, op. cit. p. 10. All direct quotes or ideas require a reference with a specific page number. When referring to a central idea in a specific work, no page numbers are required.

1 Giliomee,H and Mbengu, B. New History of South Africa. Cape Town: Tafelberg, 2007, 370.

Abbreviations and acronyms

Abbreviations and acronyms should be given in full when they occur for the first time and the abbreviation/acronym should be given in brackets. Acronyms such as ECOWAS and HIV/AIDS should be written in caps. Do not use full stops in acronyms, for example USA, RSA, UN. Avoid the use of abbreviations/acronyms in headings.

Bulleted lists

Start all bulleted lists with capital letters. Semicolons are required between bullets and a full stop after the last item in the list.


Table, graph, map and figure captions should be placed at the bottom. When reproducing data from a diagram or table, or when copying the entire table or diagram, it should be referenced by means of an endnote.


Use day, month, year (for example 1 June 2010).


Indicate the hierarchy of levels, preferably not more than two, as follows:
Heading 1
Heading 2

Italics are used for the titles of books, periodicals and newspapers.

Use English (UK) or English (South African), not English (US). Set you language preference and spell checker accordingly. Take note of the following differences:
• In the United States:
– Use -yze for words such as 'analyze'.
– Use -or for words such as 'favor', 'flavor', and 'color'.
– Use e in words such as 'esthetic' and 'encyclopedia'.
• In the UK and South Africa:
– Use -yse for words such as 'analyse'.
– Use -our for words such as 'favour', 'flavour', and 'colour'.
– Use ae in words such as 'aesthetic' and 'encyclopaedia'.

Numbers from one to ten are written out, except dates, page numbers, percentages, etc. A hard space must be used as the thousands separator, for example 1 000, and a comma for decimals, for example 6,5 per cent. The term 'per cent' is to be used in text, while the symbol (%) should be used in tables, graphs, etc.

Use double quotation marks for quotations. Long quotations (40 words or more) are usually indented and blocked, without quotation marks. Do not use italics in these indented paragraphs. Use square brackets to indicate authors' insertions and changes to the original. Additional emphases are noted as [my italics/emphasis]. Omissions are indicated by an ellipsis in square brackets […].

Archival references
Archival depot, library or museum followed by the collection, group of documents or papers.
Example: Department of Defence Archives (hereafter DOD Archives), Chief of the General Staff (hereafter CGS) 607, CGS/3/2/1Vol. 1, CGS Adjutant General (hereafter AG), 6 June 1952.
Subsequent reference to this archival group can be made as follows:
DOD Archives, CGS/3/2/1Vol. 1, CGS-AG, 6 June 1952.

Journal article

Last name, Initials. “Title of Article”. Journal Title Vol./Nr. Year. pages.
Example: Scholtz, L. “The South African Strategic and Operational Objectives in Angola, 1987–1988”. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies 38/1. 2010. 77–113.

Last name, Initials. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.
Example: Gray, CS. Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Last name, Initials. “Title of Chapter”. In Last name, Initials, and Last name, Initials (eds), Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year, pages.
Example: Kiras, J. “Irregular Warfare: Terrorism and Insurgency”. In Baylis, J, Wirtz, JJ and Gray, CS (eds), Strategy in the Contemporary World: An Introduction to Strategic Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, 185–207.

Internet document
Last name, Initials. “Title of Document”. Site Owner. Date. <URL> Accessed on date with day, month and year.
Example: Engelbrecht, L. “Analysts Welcome Defence Budget Boost”. defenceWeb. 28 October 2009. <> Accessed on 3 June 2010.

Newspaper article
Last name, Initials. “Title of Article”. Name of Newspaper, Date with day, month and year. Section. Page.
Example: Sefara, M. “Beast that instills only fear and loathing”. The Sunday Independent, 30 May 2010. Sunday Dispatches. 14.

Last name, Initials. “Title of Thesis”. Thesis presented for degree (stipulate in full). Name of university, year.
Example: Jordaan, E. “South African Defence since 1994: A Study in Policy-Making”. Thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the MMil in Military Sciences. Stellenbosch University, 2005.

Conference paper
Last name, Initials. “Title of Paper”. Paper presented at Name of Conference, Place, Date with day, month and year.
Example: Heuser, B. “Strategy Making: The Theory vs. the Practice”. Paper presented at the First South African Conference on Strategic Theory, Stellenbosch, 11 June 2009.

Editorial addresses
The Editors
Scientia Militaria
Private Bag X2
Saldanha 7395
South Africa

E-mail: /
Tel: +27-22-702-3118
Fax: +27-22-702-3060


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Authors, copyright holders, may use the publishers version for teaching purposes, in books, theses, dissertations, conferences and conference papers. 

A copy of the authors’ publishers version may also be hosted on the following websites:

  • Non-commercial personal homepage or blog.
  • Institutional webpage.
  • Authors Institutional Repository. 

The following notice should accompany such a posting on the website: “This is an electronic version of an article published in Scientia Militaria, Volume XXX, number XXX, pages XXX–XXX”, DOI.  Authors should also supply a hyperlink to the original paper or indicate where the original paper ( may be found. 

Authors publishers version, affiliated with the Stellenbosch University will be automatically deposited in the University’s’ Institutional Repository SUNScholar.

Articles as a whole, may not be re-published with another journal.

The following license applies:

Attribution CC BY-NC-ND 4.0


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Author Fees

This journal charges the following author fees.

Page Fees for Article Publication: 75.00 (ZAR)
If this paper is accepted for publication, you will be asked to pay an Article Publication Fee of R75 per page to cover publications costs.

Fees are waived for the following authors:
1. Foreign authors (Non-South African based)
2. Authors publishing in their private capacity.
3. Members of the Faculty of Military Science.